Nā ʻokoʻa i ka ʻili

ʻO ka hoʻokaʻawale ka ʻike kumu e pono ai ka ʻoihana mālama ʻili a me nā mea kūʻai aku e haku. Ke holomua nei ka ʻenehana hana ʻili hou, a ua nui a nui aku nā ʻano ʻili. He mamao loa ia e hoʻokaʻawale i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo a me ke ʻano mai ka mānoanoa a me ka nui o nā pores ma ka ʻili. ʻO ke aʻo ʻana i ka ʻike o ka ʻili ʻokoʻa, ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i nā ʻano hana a me ka ikaika hoʻonui o ka ʻili, he kōkua nui i ka hoʻolālā a me ka hana ʻana o nā mea ʻili, ka hoʻomaikaʻi hou ʻana a me ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe a me ka hōʻino ʻana o ka ʻoihana ʻili, a me ke kūʻai a me ka hoʻohana ʻana o ka ʻili. nā huahana e nā mea kūʻai aku i nā huahana ʻili. Ke nānā nei i ka ʻoihana ʻili i ka honua, pili ka ʻili i ka ʻili maoli, ʻili i hana ʻia a me nā ʻili hana.

ʻO ka ʻili maoli ka ʻili maka i ihi ʻia mai nā bipi, hipa, puaʻa, lio, dia a i ʻole kekahi mau holoholona ʻē aʻe. Ma hope o ka hana tanning a me ka hana ʻana i kahi hale hanaʻili, hana ʻia i nā mea ʻili me nā ʻano like ʻole, ka ikaika, ka manaʻo, nā kala a me nā lauana. I waena o lākou, ʻo ka bipi wahine, ka ʻili hipa a me ka ʻili puaʻa nā ʻano ʻili nui ʻekolu i hoʻohana ʻia i ka hana ʻili.

Hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ka dermis i ʻelua mau ʻano: ka papa mua o ka ʻili a me ka papa ʻelua o ka ʻili.

(1) ʻO ka papa mua o ka ʻili ka bipi kauō, hipa, ʻili puaʻa, a pēlā aku. He ʻili kūlohelohe a me nā ʻāʻī koko nā ʻili, a i kekahi manawa he ʻokiʻoki i ka hana ʻana a me ka ʻaoʻao o ka ʻōpū me ka hoʻohana haʻahaʻa loa. ʻO ka ʻili i lawe ʻia mai i kahi ʻili mua kahi i loaʻa kahi helu serial o ka bipi. Hiki i ka ʻili palaoa piha ke hoʻomaopopo i ka ʻili holoholona mai ka mānoanoa a me ka mānoanoa o nā pores. Nui a hewahewa nā ʻano o nā bipi wahine, e like me ka bipi kau bipi, bipi kau bipi, hānai bipi hānai wahine, bipi wahine, bipi kāne, bullhide uncastrated a me bullhide castrated. I ko mākou ʻāina, aia kahi bipi kau melemele, bipi bipi, bipi bipi yak a me kahi bipi ʻokeʻe. I waena o lākou, ʻoi aku ka mānoanoa o nā pores o ka ʻili buffalo; ʻoi aku ka lahilahi o nā pores o ka ʻili melemele ma mua o ka ʻili o ka buffalo. ʻO nā pores o ka ʻili hipa he ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi a he sloping liʻiliʻi, a aia ʻelua mau ʻano ʻili hipa a me ka ʻili kao. Hoʻomaopopo maʻalahi nā ʻili puaʻa ma muli o ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana o 3 i 5 mau lauoho i kahi lauoho liʻiliʻi. ʻO ka maʻamau, hoʻohana ʻia nā ʻili puaʻa i hoʻomeamea ʻia a hoʻohana ʻia nā ʻili puaʻa hihiu. ʻO ka puaʻa hihiu kaulana o ʻAmelika Hema i ʻike maopopo ʻia ke ʻano. ʻO nā pores o ka ʻili puaʻa a me nā ʻano palaoa, ma muli o kāna hanana collagen fiber kiko kikoʻī, hiki ke hana ʻia i ʻili lole palupalu loa a i ʻole ka ʻili lima, he waiwai nui. Hoʻohui ʻia, ʻili ostrich, ʻili crocodile, ʻili crocodile ihu pōkole, ʻili moʻo, ʻili nahesa, ʻili bipi, ʻili iʻa kai (ʻili manō, ʻili cod, ʻili ʻili, ʻili puhi, ʻili iʻa momi, a pēlā aku). ʻili (Aia nā lau nahele, nā ʻāpā carp a me nā ʻili iʻa scaly ʻē aʻe), nā ʻili ʻalopeke huluhulu (nā ʻili ʻalopeke kālā, nā ʻili ʻīlio ʻalopeke, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe) ʻaʻole hiki ke hana ʻia i ʻili ʻelua. Hoʻomaʻamaʻa pololei ʻia ka ʻili poʻo mai nā ʻili maka o nā holoholona like ʻole, a i ʻole nā ​​ʻili momona o nā bipi, puaʻa, lio a me nā ʻili holoholona ʻē aʻe e ʻehaʻoki a ʻoki ʻia i nā papa luna a me lalo. Hoʻohana ʻia ka ʻāpana luna me nā kiko fibrous paʻa i nā poʻo like ʻole.

(2) ʻO ka ʻili ʻelua ʻāpana ka ʻāpana ʻelua me ka ʻāpana fiber i hoʻokuʻu ʻia, i hana ʻia e ka pīpī ʻana i nā mea kemika a i ʻole ka uhi ʻana me ka kiʻi ʻoniʻoni ʻo PVC a PU paha. No laila, ʻo kahi ala kūpono e hoʻokaʻawale i ka papa mua o ka ʻili a me ka papa ʻelua o ka ʻili e nānā i ka nui o ka fiber o ka ʻāpana longitudinal o ka ʻili. Hoʻokumu ʻia ka papa mua o ka ʻili i kahi ʻāpana lahilahi a lahilahi a me kahi papa hoʻololi hoʻololi liʻiliʻi e pili pono iā ia. Loaʻa iā ia nā ʻano o ka ikaika maikaʻi, ka uila a me ka hana plasticity. ʻO ka papa ʻelua o ka ʻili kahi wale o kahi ʻāpana wehe fiber, kahi hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia e hana i nā huahana ʻili ma hope o ka pīpī ʻana i nā mea maka a i ʻole ka poli ʻana. Mālama ia i kekahi ʻano elasticity kūlohelohe a me nā ʻano plasticity ʻenehana, akā maikaʻi ʻole kona ikaika, a koi ʻia kona mānoanoa e like me ka papa mua. Aia kekahi mau ʻili like ʻole i hoʻohana ʻia i ka hana kaulana i kēia lā. ʻOkoʻa ʻokoʻa ka ʻenehana hana ʻili i ka ʻili, akā like ka hana ʻokoʻa.


Ka manawa o ka manawa: Apr-21-2021